Recently I saw some fellow Mastodon-users discussing resources and guides to get into the docker ecosystem. Given that most of my private infrastructure is built upon docker and docker-compose, I thought I'd share how I use this tool. I will try to assume no prior container-knowledge, but if anything isn't clear to you, feel free to contact me.
First up: What on earth is Docker, and why should I use it?
Docker is a container runtime. It can be used to isolate system resources in a reproducible manner, meaning if I containerize an application on my machine, I can be sure that it will function exactly the same on all machines. The benefits of this are obvious: You more or less eliminate all dependencies to a specific environment, like the operating system and other software. As long as it's the same CPU-architecture, this sentence holds true: If it runs docker, it can run your application.
Things running in a container also can't break out of this "sandbox". A process in a container is only aware of the resources around it, not on the host machine. Each container is kind of like an operating system inside your actual operating system.
To describe what a container should look like, we need to write a "recipe" for
it. In it, you describe a starting point from which you want to build upon, and
the necessary steps to achieve the desired state. This "recipe" is called a
Dockerfile. A very simple Dockerfile might look like this:
FROM ubuntu RUN apt update && apt upgrade -y CMD ["echo", "Hello World!"]
If you now run
docker build -t hello-world ., docker will take this recipe and
build an image called "hello-world". This image is a template that describes
the state of your application. In our case, we take the definition provided by
the "ubuntu" image and simply do a system update. Whenever you spawn a container
from this image, it will always start from exactly this state. Note that the
commands in the Dockerfile do not run every time you launch a container! An
image is the result of running the commands. The final instruction,
is the command to run whenever you spawn a container, but more on that later.
Congrats! You just built your very first docker image. To verify that it's
actually there, try running
docker image ls. This will list all images on your
➜ garrit.xyz git:(master) ✗ docker image ls REPOSITORY TAG IMAGE ID CREATED SIZE hello-world latest 6e2240011a89 8 minutes ago 109MB
An image doesn't really do anything on its own. You need to tell docker to construct a container out of that image. A container is essentially an instance of that image. Try running this command:
docker run hello-world
And, as instructed with the
CMD line, you should see the words "Hello World!"
printed on the screen. You can verify that it's still there by running
docker ps -a, which will list all containers on your system, including the one you
CONTAINER ID IMAGE COMMAND CREATED STATUS PORTS NAMES 05415bf66a91 hello-world "bash" 3 seconds ago Exited (0) 2 seconds ago
"This isn't really helpful!", I hear you yell. You're right, so let's look at a real world example.
Example: A simple Node.js application
A real world use case for a docker container is run your home-built application. Say we have a basic Node.js app that we wanted to containerize:
. ├── app.js ├── package-lock.json └── package.json
And your main setup-workflow for this application looks something like this:
npm install npm start
Remember that a Dockerfile is a recipe of how an application is built. A corresponding recipe could look like this:
# Declare base image FROM node:16 # Copy the application into the container COPY . . # Install dependencies RUN npm install # Launch the application CMD ["npm", "start"]
Like above, you can build this Dockerfile using
docker build -t testapp ., or
any name you'd like to use.
Quick Tip: You might also want to add a
.Dockerignorefile, which lists files and directories which should not be copied inside the container, just like a
.gitignorefile. I usually add
node_modulessince it will be recreated when building the image, and some files that are not relevant at runtime, like a README.
docker image ls should now show the image you just created:
REPOSITORY TAG IMAGE ID CREATED SIZE testapp latest 463e68d86eee 5 minutes ago 857MB
You can now "run" the image, which will result in a spawned container. Since
Containers run in their own environment, they won't be able to receive any
keystrokes by default, so you can't stop the application. To fix this, you can
-it flags, which will establish an interactive session to the process
inside the container. This makes it easier to stop the container after it is
docker run -it testapp
And voila! You should see the output of your application in the terminal. If you've done some Node.js, this output might be familiar:
➜ testapp git:(master) ✗ docker run -ti testapp > firstname.lastname@example.org start > node app.js Example app listening at http://:::8080
You'll soon discover that you can't access port 8080 on your machine. Docker has
a powerful networking engine, and each container has its own IP. You could
figure out the IP of your container and access it like that. A simpler approach
though is to just bind a port of your host machine to the container. For
example, let's bind our port 4000 to port 8081 of the container. This can be
done using the
-p flag of the cli:
docker run -p 4000:8081 -it testapp
Quick Tip: To remember the order of the container- and the host-port, I always think of the container as laying on my desk. First, I grab the cable (the host machine) and then plug it into the container. Weird analogy, I know. But it really helped me make sense of this!
If you now access
http://localhost:4000 on your host machine, you should see
Docker Compose 101
Now that we've looked at the basics of Docker, let's talk about Docker Compose. Docker Compose is a tool that allows you to define and manage multi-container applications. This means you can use a single docker-compose.yml file to define the services and dependencies of your application, and then use Docker Compose to start and stop all of the containers at once.
Using Docker Compose can save you a lot of time and hassle, especially if you have a complex application with multiple components that need to work together. With Docker Compose, you can specify the dependencies between your containers, as well as the ports, volumes, and other settings that they need to run properly. This makes it much easier to manage and maintain your application, and allows you to make changes to your environment quickly and easily.
Here is an example docker-compose.yml file for a simple Node.js application:
version: '3' services: app: build: . ports: - 3000:3000 volumes: - .:/usr/src/app command: npm start
In this file, we define a single service called "app" that uses the Dockerfile in the current directory to build an image. We then map port 3000 on the host machine to port 3000 on the container, mount the current directory as a volume, and specify the command to run when the container is started.
To start the containers defined in this docker-compose.yml file, you can run the following command:
This will build the images, create the containers, and start all of the services. You can then access your application at http://localhost:3000.
To stop the containers and remove them, you can run the following command:
This will stop and remove the containers, as well as the networks and volumes that we've created.
How I deploy my services
- Walkthrough of a simple deployment (miniflux?)
- Local volumes
- Image size optimizations
This is post 030 of #100DaysToOffload.